The following article is a short review on the current state of research by the revisionist school of Islamic Studies.
There is a gap of 150-200 years between the life of the Prophet Muhammed and his first appearance in written testimonies. During decades there was only oral lore.
The contemporary Quran is built on the 6th century compilation of Uthman. But there are even older versions of the Quran, like the Codex Sana’a. All Quran versions have in common that foreign words are contained a fact that contradicts the narrative being a sole arabic book.
A real challenge is posed by the rudimentary arabic script at the time – there was only a limited set of characters – single words could have several meanings depending on the punctuation – vowels were absent. Imagine the word rst – it could be rest reset roast …
The Uthman version of the Quran in use today has been revised in 1924 to the current „Cairo version“ – the Quran that we know.
Video above – an early Quran without punctuation (German language).
According to linguistic research there are several passages – like the one regarding the houries referring to the martyrs in paradise – that are under dispute. If you put the dots which were not existent in the historic Quran a little bit different… (watch short video below)
Video above – the houries explained
and if we look at the Dome of the Rock – one of the first Islamic sacred buildings – there are paintings of grapes on the wall resembling paradise.
But there is more. The inscription in the Dome of the Rock which according to recent research is to be translated as the following.
ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﻠـﻪ ﻭﺭﺴﻭﻝﻪ which has been previously translated as „Muhammad the messenger of Allah“ Christoph Luxenberg a native arabic speaker and a specialist in Quran arabic and syriac, published the following translation: „Praised is the servant of the Lord and his messenger.“
Muhammad(un) is not the name of a person, it is an archaic participe gerundivum referring to the blessed one, similar to the latin phrase „Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini“. You would translate to „Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord“ and not to „Benedict came in the name of the Lord“. It is similar to Jesus Christ, where Christ means the the anointed one. And this is exactly what these texts are about. The texts in the Dome of the Rock mention Jesus his birth, his death and his mother Mary – but tell nothing about the life of a person called Muhammed.
Let us continue by further reading the scriptum. There are two more interesting sections.
ﺍﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻴﺢ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﺒﻥ ﻤﺭﻴﻡ ﺭﺴﻭل ﺍﻝﻠـﻪ Jesus Christ son of Mary is the messenger of God.
ﺍﻝﻠﻬﻡ ﺼﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺴﻭﻝﻙ ﻭﻋﺒﺩﻙ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﺒﻥ ﻤﺭﻴﻡ Blessed be the servant of God (the regent) and Gods messenger Jesus son of Mary.
Here is the original version of the transcript with further information.
There is a question that haunted the Christian community and Byzantium already centuries before Mohammed appeared – The so called holy trinity, is it one God or does God consist of Father, Son and Holy Spirit – there are two seperate passages in the scriptum of the Dome of the Rock that deal with this topic. These correspond to Surah 4/171 and Surah 3/18. This question was the main reason for the development of Islam which still faces a central issue today. The Tawhid – Trinitarianism vs unitarianism.
Starting with the Umayyad era the cross – symbol of christian Byzantium resembling the trinity was modified but imitated on coins like fals and solidus, but by the time the Abbasides took over all pictoral motives were even removed.
In the year 622 Byzantine Emperor Heraclius left Constantinople to fight advancing Persian forces
„During the time of the servant of God, Maavia, the thermae were saved and renovated… in the 6th year of Indiction, the year 726 of the founding of the city … the 42. year of the arabs for treatment of the visitors, under supervision of Johannes, magistrate of Gadara.“ 42AH corresponds to 664 the time of the first Umayyad caliph Mu’awiya.
When Heraclius defeated the persian forces he installed magistrates loyal to Byzantium in the liberated areas in Egypt and Syria. Mu’awiya reigned from Damascus. While Heraclius was forced to return to Constantinople to deal with threats posed to his Balkan domains by the Avars , the Umayyad rulers became independant. Equally to the former Roman Empire decaying – the Islamic golden age was about to gather momentum. The year 622 started the arab calendar and it was later referred to on islamic coins with a slightly different meaning.
(Islamic Date AH „Anno Hegirae“ or „After Hijra“ , corresponds to the year of the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina)
It is undisputed that Mu’awiya`s capital was Damascus, where he reigned, died and his remains were buried. The language at the time was Greek and Syriac (Syrian-Aramaic). Syriac and Arabic are similar languages but have distinctive differences.
Eg in Surah 24/31 which relates to wearing a headscarf, in early Quran an expression is used that does not exist in arabic „Chummur“ also the verb to wrap is added, there is no phraseology like this in Arabic. Tho it exists in Aramaic, and only in conjunction with a belt. According to this finding the origin of this Surah might have been an order that women should wear a belt around their hips and had nothing todo with a headscarf. (Maybe due to the fact that pre-Islamic Mecca being not that conservative as it is today).
Some researcher concluded that the syriac origin might be a reason why today one fifth of the Quran is hard to decipher.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646 – 8 October 705) the 5th Umayyad Caliph extended and consolidated Muslim rule and made Arabic the state language.
In 750 the Umayyad Caliphate was inherited by the Abbasides which resulted in the shift of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad. Some interprete it as conservative revolution.
The „Black Standard“ flag was first used in this conflict. The separation between Islam and Christianity increased. Books in syriac were translated into arabic. People not obeying islamic traditions were threatened with death. As the christian calendar started with the birth of Christ, muslims reinterpreted AH as date related to Mohammed.
Flag of the Islamic State. First line squared in red: There is only one God.
Content of white circle (seal of the prophet): Muhammed is the prophet of God, what we learned from the Dome of the Rock origins from – Praised be the messenger of God which was related to Jesus.
A fish on an Umayyad coin – symbol of early Christians, text around: Muhammad – rasûl – allâh (Muhammed is the messenger of God / Praise the messenger of God) all in a square.
Reverse side text, also in a square lâ ilâha / illâ llâh / wahdahu. (There is no God but God).
Islamic coin (Umayyad era) from muslim conquered al-Andalus (Spain 712-714 AD)
Latin text: „In nomine domini non Deus nisi Deus solus cui non socius“.
In the name of God. There is no God but God alone, whom has no companion.
If you were surprised by now – not only the Dome of the Rock bears Christian reminders but also the Kaaba in Mecca symbol of Islam has Christian roots.
Al-Azraqi († 837) as mentioned in „Chroniken der Stadt Mekka“, Part 1, Leipzig
1858, reprint Beyrouth 1964, p. 110 s.
„On the day of the conquest of Mecca the Prophet entered the House (the Kaaba) and sent al-Fadl ibn al-Abbas ibn Abdalmuttalib to get water from the well of Zemzem. He ordered to bring pieces of cloth and to imbue them with water and then he commanded to wash off these pictures, as it was done. He stretched his arms, however, over the picture of Jesus, the son of Mary, and of his mother and said: ‚Wash off all except what is under my hands!'“ In other narratives even the name of the painter is mentioned as Baqum or Pachomius.
But there were not only images but also …
There are rumours that the paintings were still visible until the Saudi „renovation“ in 1996. The self proclaimed keepers of the sacred places already destroyed a massive amount of archeological sites and remains during their reign.
When Sudanese theologian Mahmud Muhammad Taha postulated that the verses of the Qur’an revealed in Medina were appropriate in their time as the basis of Islamic law, (Sharia), but that the verses revealed in Mecca represented the ideal religion, ushering in a renewed Islam based on freedom and equality. He was executed for apostasy.
It is simple as that – as long as men who desire virgins and little boys* in paradise dictate their ideology – which cleary has nothing in common with the word of Muhammad – no matter which Muhammad we talk of – these radical forms of Islam cannot be considered to be a peaceful religion as there are several misconceptions included in the current Quran.
Persons from the bible appearing in the Quran:
Abraham (Ibrahim) 79 times
Moses (Musa) 136 times
Aaron (Harun) 20 times
Jesus (Isa) 24 times
Maria (Maryam) 34 times
Adam (Adam) 25 times
Noah (Nuh) 33 times
Pharao (Firàwn) 74times
Prophet(Nabi) 43 times
Messenger / Apostle of Allah(rasul Allah) in different versions > 300 times
Muhammad – 4 times.
The Term „MHMD“ was already used 1300 bc in Ugarit to mark the highest purity of Gold.
A book whose verses have been transferred into Arabic.
(Christoph Luxenberg transcript)
Surah 41 Verse 3
And we sent, following in their footsteps, Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming that which came before him in the Torah; and We gave him the Gospel, in which was guidance and light and confirming that which preceded it of the Torah as guidance and instruction for the righteous.
Surah 5 Verse 46
„O People of the Scripture, you are [standing] on nothing until you uphold [the law of] the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to you from your Lord.“
Surah 5 Verse 68
The inside of the Kaaba after Saudi „renovation“
The source of [Muslims’] infidelity was their hearing terrible names such as Socrates and Hippocrates, Plato and Aristotle…. [the followers of the philosophers] relate of the how, with all the gravity of their intellects and the exuberances of their erudition, they denied the sacred laws and creeds and rejected the details of the religions and faiths, believing them to be fabricated ordinances and bedizened trickeries.
Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
A documentation on the hidden history of Islam.
*Similar to the houris in Surah 76 Verse 19
„There will circulate among them young boys made eternal. When you see them, you would think them [as beautiful as] scattered pearls.“ [wildanun muhalladuna].
Young boys „wildanun“ in this context, corresponds in Aramaic to the „Child of the grapevine“. While „muhalladuna“ regains its original Armaic meaning with changing the diacrit point from top to bottom to ice cold. So instead of young boys, ice cooled wine or juice is circulating in paradise.
The houris are mentioned in several passages, eg. Surah 44 Verse 54.
„Thus. And We will marry them to fair women with large, [beautiful] eyes.“
In Surah 2 Verse 25 they are called purified spouses. In Surah 55 Verse 56 „In them are women limiting [their] glances, untouched before them by man or jinni“.
What the arabic translators of the Quran did not know any more that -in as ending equals not „Eye“ how they interpreted it, but it is „clear, shiny“ in Aramaic, so bi-hour inin – bi not being arabic word „with“ – but Aramaic „under“, the Martyr is not „married“ to a virgin, but he rests under beautiful shiny grapevines. If you look at the context of Surah 44 Verse 55 . You will find peace under the fruits and are safe and secure. „Surah 44/55 They will call therein for every [kind of] fruit – safe and secure.“ It suddenly makes sense.
The Qibla, the direction Muslims should be facing during obligatory worship has been Jerusalem – it started to change towards Mecca some ys after Muḥammads hijra.
It also is interesting, that the first islamic coin bearing the word Muḥammad – Muḥammad rasūl Allāh („Muḥammad is the Messenger of God“/ Praise the messenger of God) was struck under ʿAbd al-Malik ibn ʿAbd Allāh the son of the creator of the Dome of the Rock.
Coincidentally the Temple Mount where the Dome of the Rock is located bears the places where both Jesus and Mohammed ascended to Heaven.
Examples for non-Arabic words used in Quran:
(Dschehennam Persian for hell, taurah Hebrew for Thora, logos Greek for Word …)
Inarah.de, Wikipedia , Youtube
Karl-Heinz Ohlig, Gerd-R Puin
The Hidden Origins of Islam: New Research into Its Early History
Der christliche Kult an der vorislamischen Kaaba als Problem der Islamwissenschaft und christlichen Theologie